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Etiqueta: L.rw

Pruebas de take n xs ++ drop n xs = xs

En Lean están definidas las funciones

   take : nat → list α → nat
   drop : nat → list α → nat
   (++) : list α → list α → list α

tales que

  • (take n xs) es la lista formada por los n primeros elementos de xs. Por ejemplo,
     take 2 [3,5,1,9,7] = [3,5]
  • (drop n xs) es la lista formada eliminando los n primeros elementos de xs. Por ejemplo,
     drop 2 [3,5,1,9,7] = [1,9,7]
  • (xs ++ ys) es la lista obtenida concatenando xs e ys. Por ejemplo.
     [3,5] ++ [1,9,7] = [3,5,1,9,7]

Dichas funciones están caracterizadas por los siguientes lemas:

   take_zero   : take 0 xs = []
   take_nil    : take n [] = []
   take_cons   : take (succ n) (x :: xs) = x :: take n xs
   drop_zero   : drop 0 xs = xs
   drop_nil    : drop n [] = []
   drop_cons   : drop (succ n) (x :: xs) = drop n xs := rfl
   nil_append  : [] ++ ys = ys
   cons_append : (x :: xs) ++ y = x :: (xs ++ ys)

Demostrar que

   take n xs ++ drop n xs = xs

Para ello, completar la siguiente teoría de Lean:

import data.list.basic
import tactic
open list nat
 
variable {α : Type}
variable (x : α)
variable (xs : list α)
variable (n : )
 
lemma drop_zero : drop 0 xs = xs := rfl
lemma drop_cons : drop (succ n) (x :: xs) = drop n xs := rfl
 
example :
  take n xs ++ drop n xs = xs :=
sorry
Soluciones con Lean
import data.list.basic
import tactic
open list
open nat
 
variable {α : Type}
variable (n : )
variable (x : α)
variable (xs : list α)
 
lemma drop_zero : drop 0 xs = xs := rfl
lemma drop_cons : drop (succ n) (x :: xs) = drop n xs := rfl
 
-- 1ª demostración
example :
  take n xs ++ drop n xs = xs :=
begin
  induction n with m HI1 generalizing xs,
  { rw take_zero,
    rw drop_zero,
    rw nil_append, },
  { induction xs with a as HI2,
    { rw take_nil,
      rw drop_nil,
      rw nil_append, },
    { rw take_cons,
      rw drop_cons,
      rw cons_append,
      rw (HI1 as), }, },
end
 
-- 2ª demostración
example :
  take n xs ++ drop n xs = xs :=
begin
  induction n with m HI1 generalizing xs,
  { calc take 0 xs ++ drop 0 xs
         = [] ++ drop 0 xs        : by rw take_zero
     ... = [] ++ xs               : by rw drop_zero
     ... = xs                     : by rw nil_append, },
  { induction xs with a as HI2,
    { calc take (succ m) [] ++ drop (succ m) []
           = ([] : list α) ++ drop (succ m) [] : by rw take_nil
       ... = [] ++ []                          : by rw drop_nil
       ... = []                                : by rw nil_append, },
    { calc take (succ m) (a :: as) ++ drop (succ m) (a :: as)
           = (a :: take m as) ++ drop (succ m) (a :: as) : by rw take_cons
       ... = (a :: take m as) ++ drop m as               : by rw drop_cons
       ... = a :: (take m as ++ drop m as)               : by rw cons_append
       ... = a :: as                                     : by rw (HI1 as), }, },
end
 
-- 3ª demostración
example :
  take n xs ++ drop n xs = xs :=
begin
  induction n with m HI1 generalizing xs,
  { simp, },
  { induction xs with a as HI2,
    { simp, },
    { simp [HI1 as], }, },
end
 
-- 4ª demostración
lemma conc_take_drop_1 :
   (n : ) (xs : list α), take n xs ++ drop n xs = xs
| 0 xs := by calc
    take 0 xs ++ drop 0 xs
        = [] ++ drop 0 xs   : by rw take_zero
    ... = [] ++ xs          : by rw drop_zero
    ... = xs                : by rw nil_append
| (succ m) [] := by calc
    take (succ m) [] ++ drop (succ m) []
        = ([] : list α) ++ drop (succ m) [] : by rw take_nil
    ... = [] ++ []                          : by rw drop_nil
    ... = []                                : by rw nil_append
| (succ m) (a :: as) := by calc
    take (succ m) (a :: as) ++ drop (succ m) (a :: as)
        = (a :: take m as) ++ drop (succ m) (a :: as)    : by rw take_cons
    ... = (a :: take m as) ++ drop m as                  : by rw drop_cons
    ... = a :: (take m as ++ drop m as)                  : by rw cons_append
    ... = a :: as                                        : by rw conc_take_drop_1
 
-- 5ª demostración
lemma conc_take_drop_2 :
   (n : ) (xs : list α), take n xs ++ drop n xs = xs
| 0        xs        := by simp
| (succ m) []        := by simp
| (succ m) (a :: as) := by simp [conc_take_drop_2]
 
-- 6ª demostración
lemma conc_take_drop_3 :
   (n : ) (xs : list α), take n xs ++ drop n xs = xs
| 0        xs        := rfl
| (succ m) []        := rfl
| (succ m) (a :: as) := congr_arg (cons a) (conc_take_drop_3 m as)
 
-- 7ª demostración
example : take n xs ++ drop n xs = xs :=
-- by library_search
take_append_drop n xs
 
-- 8ª demostración
example : take n xs ++ drop n xs = xs :=
by simp

Se puede interactuar con la prueba anterior en esta sesión con Lean.

En los comentarios se pueden escribir otras soluciones, escribiendo el código entre una línea con <pre lang="lean"> y otra con </pre>

Soluciones con Isabelle/HOL
theory "Pruebas_de_take_n_xs_++_drop_n_xs_Ig_xs"
imports Main
begin
 
fun take' :: "nat ⇒ 'a list ⇒ 'a list" where
  "take' n []           = []"
| "take' 0 xs           = []"
| "take' (Suc n) (x#xs) = x # (take' n xs)"
 
fun drop' :: "nat ⇒ 'a list ⇒ 'a list" where
  "drop' n []           = []"
| "drop' 0 xs           = xs"
| "drop' (Suc n) (x#xs) = drop' n xs"
 
(* 1ª demostración *)
lemma "take' n xs @ drop' n xs = xs"
proof (induct rule: take'.induct)
  fix n
  have "take' n [] @ drop' n [] = [] @ drop' n []"
    by (simp only: take'.simps(1))
  also have "… = drop' n []"
    by (simp only: append.simps(1))
  also have "… = []"
    by (simp only: drop'.simps(1))
  finally show "take' n [] @ drop' n [] = []"
    by this
next
  fix x :: 'a and xs :: "'a list"
  have "take' 0 (x#xs) @ drop' 0 (x#xs) =
        [] @ drop' 0 (x#xs)"
    by (simp only: take'.simps(2))
  also have "… = drop' 0 (x#xs)"
    by  (simp only: append.simps(1))
  also have "… = x # xs"
    by  (simp only: drop'.simps(2))
  finally show "take' 0 (x#xs) @ drop' 0 (x#xs) = x#xs"
    by this
next
  fix n :: nat and x :: 'a and xs :: "'a list"
  assume HI: "take' n xs @ drop' n xs = xs"
  have "take' (Suc n) (x # xs) @ drop' (Suc n) (x # xs) =
        (x # (take' n xs)) @ drop' n xs"
    by (simp only: take'.simps(3)
                   drop'.simps(3))
  also have "… = x # (take' n xs @ drop' n xs)"
    by (simp only: append.simps(2))
  also have "… = x#xs"
    by (simp only: HI)
  finally show "take' (Suc n) (x#xs) @ drop' (Suc n) (x#xs) =
                x#xs"
    by this
qed
 
(* 2ª demostración *)
lemma "take' n xs @ drop' n xs = xs"
proof (induct rule: take'.induct)
case (1 n)
  then show ?case by simp
next
  case (2 x xs)
  then show ?case by simp
next
  case (3 n x xs)
  then show ?case by simp
qed
 
(* 3ª demostración *)
lemma "take' n xs @ drop' n xs = xs"
by (induct rule: take'.induct) simp_all
 
end

En los comentarios se pueden escribir otras soluciones, escribiendo el código entre una línea con <pre lang="isar"> y otra con </pre>

Pruebas de length (xs ++ ys) = length xs + length ys

En Lean están definidas las funciones

   length : list α → nat
   (++)   : list α → list α → list α

tales que

  • (length xs) es la longitud de xs. Por ejemplo,
     length [2,3,5,3] = 4
  • (xs ++ ys) es la lista obtenida concatenando xs e ys. Por ejemplo.
     [1,2] ++ [2,3,5,3] = [1,2,2,3,5,3]

Dichas funciones están caracterizadas por los siguientes lemas:

   length_nil  : length [] = 0
   length_cons : length (x :: xs) = length xs + 1
   nil_append  : [] ++ ys = ys
   cons_append : (x :: xs) ++ y = x :: (xs ++ ys)

Demostrar que

   length (xs ++ ys) = length xs + length ys

Para ello, completar la siguiente teoría de Lean:

import tactic
open list
 
variable  {α : Type}
variable  (x : α)
variables (xs ys zs : list α)
 
lemma length_nil  : length ([] : list α) = 0 := rfl
 
example :
  length (xs ++ ys) = length xs + length ys :=
sorry
Soluciones con Lean
import tactic
open list
 
variable  {α : Type}
variable  (x : α)
variables (xs ys zs : list α)
 
lemma length_nil  : length ([] : list α) = 0 := rfl
 
-- 1ª demostración
example :
  length (xs ++ ys) = length xs + length ys :=
begin
  induction xs with a as HI,
  { rw nil_append,
    rw length_nil,
    rw zero_add, },
  { rw cons_append,
    rw length_cons,
    rw HI,
    rw length_cons,
    rw add_assoc,
    rw add_comm (length ys),
    rw add_assoc, },
end
 
-- 2ª demostración
example :
  length (xs ++ ys) = length xs + length ys :=
begin
  induction xs with a as HI,
  { rw nil_append,
    rw length_nil,
    rw zero_add, },
  { rw cons_append,
    rw length_cons,
    rw HI,
    rw length_cons,
    -- library_search,
    exact add_right_comm (length as) (length ys) 1 },
end
 
-- 3ª demostración
example :
  length (xs ++ ys) = length xs + length ys :=
begin
  induction xs with a as HI,
  { rw nil_append,
    rw length_nil,
    rw zero_add, },
  { rw cons_append,
    rw length_cons,
    rw HI,
    rw length_cons,
    -- by hint,
    linarith, },
end
 
-- 4ª demostración
example :
  length (xs ++ ys) = length xs + length ys :=
begin
  induction xs with a as HI,
  { simp, },
  { simp [HI],
    linarith, },
end
 
-- 5ª demostración
example :
  length (xs ++ ys) = length xs + length ys :=
begin
  induction xs with a as HI,
  { simp, },
  { finish [HI],},
end
 
-- 6ª demostración
example :
  length (xs ++ ys) = length xs + length ys :=
by induction xs ; finish [*]
 
-- 7ª demostración
example :
  length (xs ++ ys) = length xs + length ys :=
begin
  induction xs with a as HI,
  { calc length ([] ++ ys)
         = length ys                    : congr_arg length (nil_append ys)
     ... = 0 + length ys                : (zero_add (length ys)).symm
     ... = length [] + length ys        : congr_arg2 (+) length_nil.symm rfl, },
  { calc length ((a :: as) ++ ys)
         = length (a :: (as ++ ys))     : congr_arg length (cons_append a as ys)
     ... = length (as ++ ys) + 1        : length_cons a (as ++ ys)
     ... = (length as + length ys) + 1  : congr_arg2 (+) HI rfl
     ... = (length as + 1) + length ys  : add_right_comm (length as) (length ys) 1
     ... = length (a :: as) + length ys : congr_arg2 (+) (length_cons a as).symm rfl, },
end
 
-- 8ª demostración
example :
  length (xs ++ ys) = length xs + length ys :=
begin
  induction xs with a as HI,
  { calc length ([] ++ ys)
         = length ys                    : by rw nil_append
     ... = 0 + length ys                : (zero_add (length ys)).symm
     ... = length [] + length ys        : by rw length_nil },
  { calc length ((a :: as) ++ ys)
         = length (a :: (as ++ ys))     : by rw cons_append
     ... = length (as ++ ys) + 1        : by rw length_cons
     ... = (length as + length ys) + 1  : by rw HI
     ... = (length as + 1) + length ys  : add_right_comm (length as) (length ys) 1
     ... = length (a :: as) + length ys : by rw length_cons, },
end
 
-- 9ª demostración
example :
  length (xs ++ ys) = length xs + length ys :=
list.rec_on xs
  ( show length ([] ++ ys) = length [] + length ys, from
      calc length ([] ++ ys)
           = length ys                    : by rw nil_append
       ... = 0 + length ys                : by exact (zero_add (length ys)).symm
       ... = length [] + length ys        : by rw length_nil )
  ( assume a as,
    assume HI : length (as ++ ys) = length as + length ys,
    show length ((a :: as) ++ ys) = length (a :: as) + length ys, from
      calc length ((a :: as) ++ ys)
           = length (a :: (as ++ ys))     : by rw cons_append
       ... = length (as ++ ys) + 1        : by rw length_cons
       ... = (length as + length ys) + 1  : by rw HI
       ... = (length as + 1) + length ys  : by exact add_right_comm (length as) (length ys) 1
       ... = length (a :: as) + length ys : by rw length_cons)
 
-- 10ª demostración
example :
  length (xs ++ ys) = length xs + length ys :=
list.rec_on xs
  ( by simp)
  ( λ a as HI, by simp [HI, add_right_comm])
 
-- 11ª demostración
lemma longitud_conc_1 :
   xs, length (xs ++ ys) = length xs + length ys
| [] := by calc
    length ([] ++ ys)
        = length ys                    : by rw nil_append
    ... = 0 + length ys                : by rw zero_add
    ... = length [] + length ys        : by rw length_nil
| (a :: as) := by calc
    length ((a :: as) ++ ys)
        = length (a :: (as ++ ys))     : by rw cons_append
    ... = length (as ++ ys) + 1        : by rw length_cons
    ... = (length as + length ys) + 1  : by rw longitud_conc_1
    ... = (length as + 1) + length ys  : by exact add_right_comm (length as) (length ys) 1
    ... = length (a :: as) + length ys : by rw length_cons
 
-- 12ª demostración
lemma longitud_conc_2 :
   xs, length (xs ++ ys) = length xs + length ys
| []        := by simp
| (a :: as) := by simp [longitud_conc_2 as, add_right_comm]
 
-- 13ª demostración
example :
  length (xs ++ ys) = length xs + length ys :=
-- by library_search
length_append xs ys
 
-- 14ª demostración
example :
  length (xs ++ ys) = length xs + length ys :=
by simp

Se puede interactuar con la prueba anterior en esta sesión con Lean.

En los comentarios se pueden escribir otras soluciones, escribiendo el código entre una línea con <pre lang="lean"> y otra con </pre>

Soluciones con Isabelle/HOL
theory "Pruebas_de_length(xs_++_ys)_Ig_length_xs+length_ys"
imports Main
begin
 
(* 1ª demostración *)
lemma "length (xs @ ys) = length xs + length ys"
proof (induct xs)
  have "length ([] @ ys) = length ys"
    by (simp only: append_Nil)
  also have "… = 0 + length ys"
    by (rule add_0 [symmetric])
  also have "… = length [] + length ys"
    by (simp only: list.size(3))
  finally show "length ([] @ ys) = length [] + length ys"
    by this
next
  fix x xs
  assume HI : "length (xs @ ys) = length xs + length ys"
  have "length ((x # xs) @ ys) =
        length (x # (xs @ ys))"
    by (simp only: append_Cons)
  also have "… = length (xs @ ys) + 1"
    by (simp only: list.size(4))
  also have "… = (length xs + length ys) + 1"
    by (simp only: HI)
  also have "… = (length xs + 1) + length ys"
    by (simp only: add.assoc add.commute)
  also have "… = length (x # xs) + length ys"
    by (simp only: list.size(4))
  then show "length ((x # xs) @ ys) = length (x # xs) + length ys"
    by simp
qed
 
(* 2ª demostración *)
lemma "length (xs @ ys) = length xs + length ys"
proof (induct xs)
  show "length ([] @ ys) = length [] + length ys"
    by simp
next
  fix x xs
  assume "length (xs @ ys) = length xs + length ys"
  then show "length ((x # xs) @ ys) = length (x # xs) + length ys"
    by simp
qed
 
(* 3ª demostración *)
lemma "length (xs @ ys) = length xs + length ys"
proof (induct xs)
  case Nil
  then show ?case by simp
next
  case (Cons a xs)
  then show ?case by simp
qed
 
(* 4ª demostración *)
lemma "length (xs @ ys) = length xs + length ys"
by (induct xs) simp_all
 
(* 5ª demostración *)
lemma "length (xs @ ys) = length xs + length ys"
by (fact length_append)
 
end

En los comentarios se pueden escribir otras soluciones, escribiendo el código entre una línea con <pre lang="isar"> y otra con </pre>

Asociatividad de la concatenación de listas

En Lean la operación de concatenación de listas se representa por (++) y está caracterizada por los siguientes lemas

   nil_append  : [] ++ ys = ys
   cons_append : (x :: xs) ++ y = x :: (xs ++ ys)

Demostrar que la concatenación es asociativa; es decir,

   xs ++ (ys ++ zs) = (xs ++ ys) ++ zs

Para ello, completar la siguiente teoría de Lean:

import data.list.basic
import tactic
open list
 
variable  {α : Type}
variable  (x : α)
variables (xs ys zs : list α)
 
example :
  xs ++ (ys ++ zs) = (xs ++ ys) ++ zs :=
sorry
Soluciones con Lean
import data.list.basic
import tactic
open list
 
variable  {α : Type}
variable  (x : α)
variables (xs ys zs : list α)
 
-- 1ª demostración
example :
  xs ++ (ys ++ zs) = (xs ++ ys) ++ zs :=
begin
  induction xs with a as HI,
  { calc [] ++ (ys ++ zs)
         = ys ++ zs                : append.equations._eqn_1 (ys ++ zs)
     ... = ([] ++ ys) ++ zs        : congr_arg2 (++) (append.equations._eqn_1 ys) rfl, },
  { calc (a :: as) ++ (ys ++ zs)
         = a :: (as ++ (ys ++ zs)) : append.equations._eqn_2 a as (ys ++ zs)
     ... = a :: ((as ++ ys) ++ zs) : congr_arg2 (::) rfl HI
     ... = (a :: (as ++ ys)) ++ zs : (append.equations._eqn_2 a (as ++ ys) zs).symm
     ... = ((a :: as) ++ ys) ++ zs : congr_arg2 (++) (append.equations._eqn_2 a as ys).symm rfl, },
end
 
-- 2ª demostración
example :
  xs ++ (ys ++ zs) = (xs ++ ys) ++ zs :=
begin
  induction xs with a as HI,
  { calc [] ++ (ys ++ zs)
         = ys ++ zs                : nil_append (ys ++ zs)
     ... = ([] ++ ys) ++ zs        : congr_arg2 (++) (nil_append ys) rfl, },
  { calc (a :: as) ++ (ys ++ zs)
         = a :: (as ++ (ys ++ zs)) : cons_append a as (ys ++ zs)
     ... = a :: ((as ++ ys) ++ zs) : congr_arg2 (::) rfl HI
     ... = (a :: (as ++ ys)) ++ zs : (cons_append a (as ++ ys) zs).symm
     ... = ((a :: as) ++ ys) ++ zs : congr_arg2 (++) (cons_append a as ys).symm rfl, },
end
 
-- 3ª demostración
example :
  xs ++ (ys ++ zs) = (xs ++ ys) ++ zs :=
begin
  induction xs with a as HI,
  { calc [] ++ (ys ++ zs)
         = ys ++ zs                : by rw nil_append
     ... = ([] ++ ys) ++ zs        : by rw nil_append, },
  { calc (a :: as) ++ (ys ++ zs)
         = a :: (as ++ (ys ++ zs)) : by rw cons_append
     ... = a :: ((as ++ ys) ++ zs) : by rw HI
     ... = (a :: (as ++ ys)) ++ zs : by rw cons_append
     ... = ((a :: as) ++ ys) ++ zs : by rw ← cons_append, },
end
 
-- 4ª demostración
example :
  xs ++ (ys ++ zs) = (xs ++ ys) ++ zs :=
begin
  induction xs with a as HI,
  { calc [] ++ (ys ++ zs)
         = ys ++ zs                : rfl
     ... = ([] ++ ys) ++ zs        : rfl, },
  { calc (a :: as) ++ (ys ++ zs)
         = a :: (as ++ (ys ++ zs)) : rfl
     ... = a :: ((as ++ ys) ++ zs) : by rw HI
     ... = (a :: (as ++ ys)) ++ zs : rfl
     ... = ((a :: as) ++ ys) ++ zs : rfl, },
end
 
-- 5ª demostración
example :
  xs ++ (ys ++ zs) = (xs ++ ys) ++ zs :=
begin
  induction xs with a as HI,
  { calc [] ++ (ys ++ zs)
         = ys ++ zs                : by simp
     ... = ([] ++ ys) ++ zs        : by simp, },
  { calc (a :: as) ++ (ys ++ zs)
         = a :: (as ++ (ys ++ zs)) : by simp
     ... = a :: ((as ++ ys) ++ zs) : congr_arg (cons a) HI
     ... = (a :: (as ++ ys)) ++ zs : by simp
     ... = ((a :: as) ++ ys) ++ zs : by simp, },
end
 
-- 6ª demostración
example :
  xs ++ (ys ++ zs) = (xs ++ ys) ++ zs :=
begin
  induction xs with a as HI,
  { by simp, },
  { by exact (cons_inj a).mpr HI, },
end
 
-- 7ª demostración
example :
  xs ++ (ys ++ zs) = (xs ++ ys) ++ zs :=
begin
  induction xs with a as HI,
  { rw nil_append,
    rw nil_append, },
  { rw cons_append,
    rw HI,
    rw cons_append,
    rw cons_append, },
end
 
-- 8ª demostración
example :
  xs ++ (ys ++ zs) = (xs ++ ys) ++ zs :=
list.rec_on xs
  ( show [] ++ (ys ++ zs) = ([] ++ ys) ++ zs,
      from calc
        [] ++ (ys ++ zs)
            = ys ++ zs         : by rw nil_append
        ... = ([] ++ ys) ++ zs : by rw nil_append )
  ( assume a as,
    assume HI : as ++ (ys ++ zs) = (as ++ ys) ++ zs,
    show (a :: as) ++ (ys  ++ zs) = ((a :: as) ++ ys) ++ zs,
      from calc
        (a :: as) ++ (ys ++ zs)
            = a :: (as ++ (ys ++ zs)) : by rw cons_append
        ... = a :: ((as ++ ys) ++ zs) : by rw HI
        ... = (a :: (as ++ ys)) ++ zs : by rw cons_append
        ... = ((a :: as) ++ ys) ++ zs : by rw ← cons_append)
 
-- 9ª demostración
example :
  xs ++ (ys ++ zs) = (xs ++ ys) ++ zs :=
list.rec_on xs
  (by simp)
  (by simp [*])
 
-- 10ª demostración
lemma conc_asoc_1 :
   xs, xs ++ (ys ++ zs) = (xs ++ ys) ++ zs
| [] := by calc
    [] ++ (ys ++ zs)
        = ys ++ zs         : by rw nil_append
    ... = ([] ++ ys) ++ zs : by rw nil_append
| (a :: as) := by calc
    (a :: as) ++ (ys ++ zs)
        = a :: (as ++ (ys ++ zs)) : by rw cons_append
    ... = a :: ((as ++ ys) ++ zs) : by rw conc_asoc_1
    ... = (a :: (as ++ ys)) ++ zs : by rw cons_append
    ... = ((a :: as) ++ ys) ++ zs : by rw ← cons_append
 
-- 11ª demostración
example :
  (xs ++ ys) ++ zs = xs ++ (ys ++ zs) :=
-- by library_search
append_assoc xs ys zs
 
-- 12ª demostración
example :
  (xs ++ ys) ++ zs = xs ++ (ys ++ zs) :=
by induction xs ; simp [*]
 
-- 13ª demostración
example :
  (xs ++ ys) ++ zs = xs ++ (ys ++ zs) :=
by simp

Se puede interactuar con la prueba anterior en esta sesión con Lean.

En los comentarios se pueden escribir otras soluciones, escribiendo el código entre una línea con <pre lang="lean"> y otra con </pre>

Soluciones con Isabelle/HOL
theory Asociatividad_de_la_concatenacion_de_listas
imports Main
begin
 
(* 1ª demostración *)
lemma "xs @ (ys @ zs) = (xs @ ys) @ zs"
proof (induct xs)
  have "[] @ (ys @ zs) = ys @ zs"
    by (simp only: append_Nil)
  also have "… = ([] @ ys) @ zs"
    by (simp only: append_Nil)
  finally show "[] @ (ys @ zs) = ([] @ ys) @ zs"
    by this
next
  fix x xs
  assume HI : "xs @ (ys @ zs) = (xs @ ys) @ zs"
  have "(x # xs) @ (ys @ zs) = x # (xs @ (ys @ zs))"
    by (simp only: append_Cons)
  also have "… = x # ((xs @ ys) @ zs)"
    by (simp only: HI)
  also have "… = (x # (xs @ ys)) @ zs"
    by (simp only: append_Cons)
  also have "… = ((x # xs) @ ys) @ zs"
    by (simp only: append_Cons)
  finally show "(x # xs) @ (ys @ zs) = ((x # xs) @ ys) @ zs"
    by this
qed
 
(* 2ª demostración *)
lemma "xs @ (ys @ zs) = (xs @ ys) @ zs"
proof (induct xs)
  have "[] @ (ys @ zs) = ys @ zs" by simp
  also have "… = ([] @ ys) @ zs" by simp
  finally show "[] @ (ys @ zs) = ([] @ ys) @ zs" .
next
  fix x xs
  assume HI : "xs @ (ys @ zs) = (xs @ ys) @ zs"
  have "(x # xs) @ (ys @ zs) = x # (xs @ (ys @ zs))" by simp
  also have "… = x # ((xs @ ys) @ zs)" by simp
  also have "… = (x # (xs @ ys)) @ zs" by simp
  also have "… = ((x # xs) @ ys) @ zs" by simp
  finally show "(x # xs) @ (ys @ zs) = ((x # xs) @ ys) @ zs" .
qed
 
(* 3ª demostración *)
lemma "xs @ (ys @ zs) = (xs @ ys) @ zs"
proof (induct xs)
  show "[] @ (ys @ zs) = ([] @ ys) @ zs" by simp
next
  fix x xs
  assume "xs @ (ys @ zs) = (xs @ ys) @ zs"
  then show "(x # xs) @ (ys @ zs) = ((x # xs) @ ys) @ zs" by simp
qed
 
(* 4ª demostración *)
lemma "xs @ (ys @ zs) = (xs @ ys) @ zs"
proof (induct xs)
  case Nil
  then show ?case by simp
next
  case (Cons a xs)
  then show ?case by simp
qed
 
(* 5ª demostración *)
lemma "xs @ (ys @ zs) = (xs @ ys) @ zs"
  by (rule append_assoc [symmetric])
 
(* 6ª demostración *)
lemma "xs @ (ys @ zs) = (xs @ ys) @ zs"
  by (induct xs) simp_all
 
(* 7ª demostración *)
lemma "xs @ (ys @ zs) = (xs @ ys) @ zs"
  by simp
 
end

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Pruebas de length (repeat x n) = n

En Lean están definidas las funciones length y repeat tales que

  • (length xs) es la longitud de la lista xs. Por ejemplo,
     length [1,2,5,2] = 4
  • (repeat x n) es la lista que tiene el elemento x n veces. Por ejemplo,
     repeat 7 3 = [7, 7, 7]

Demostrar que

   length (repeat x n) = n

Para ello, completar la siguiente teoría de Lean:

import data.list.basic
open nat
open list
 
variable {α : Type}
variable (x : α)
variable (n : )
 
example :
  length (repeat x n) = n :=
sorry
Soluciones con Lean
import data.list.basic
open nat
open list
 
set_option pp.structure_projections false
 
variable {α : Type}
variable (x : α)
variable (n : )
 
-- 1ª demostración
example :
  length (repeat x n) = n :=
begin
  induction n with n HI,
  { calc length (repeat x 0)
          = length []                : congr_arg length (repeat.equations._eqn_1 x)
      ... = 0                        : length.equations._eqn_1 },
  { calc length (repeat x (succ n))
         = length (x :: repeat x n)  : congr_arg length (repeat.equations._eqn_2 x n)
     ... = length (repeat x n) + 1   : length.equations._eqn_2 x (repeat x n)
     ... = n + 1                     : congr_arg2 (+) HI rfl
     ... = succ n                    : rfl, },
end
 
-- 2ª demostración
example :
  length (repeat x n) = n :=
begin
  induction n with n HI,
  { calc length (repeat x 0)
          = length []                : rfl
      ... = 0                        : rfl },
  { calc length (repeat x (succ n))
         = length (x :: repeat x n)  : rfl
     ... = length (repeat x n) + 1   : rfl
     ... = n + 1                     : by rw HI
     ... = succ n                    : rfl, },
end
 
-- 3ª demostración
example : length (repeat x n) = n :=
begin
  induction n with n HI,
  { refl, },
  { dsimp,
    rw HI, },
end
 
-- 4ª demostración
example : length (repeat x n) = n :=
begin
  induction n with n HI,
  { simp, },
  { simp [HI], },
end
 
-- 5ª demostración
example : length (repeat x n) = n :=
by induction n ; simp [*]
 
-- 6ª demostración
example : length (repeat x n) = n :=
nat.rec_on n
  ( show length (repeat x 0) = 0, from
      calc length (repeat x 0)
           = length []                : rfl
       ... = 0                        : rfl )
  ( assume n,
    assume HI : length (repeat x n) = n,
    show length (repeat x (succ n)) = succ n, from
      calc length (repeat x (succ n))
           = length (x :: repeat x n) : rfl
       ... = length (repeat x n) + 1  : rfl
       ... = n + 1                    : by rw HI
       ... = succ n                   : rfl )
 
-- 7ª demostración
example : length (repeat x n) = n :=
nat.rec_on n
  ( by simp )
  ( λ n HI, by simp [HI])
 
-- 8ª demostración
example : length (repeat x n) = n :=
length_repeat x n
 
-- 9ª demostración
example : length (repeat x n) = n :=
by simp
 
-- 10ª demostración
lemma length_repeat_1 :
   n, length (repeat x n) = n
| 0 := by calc length (repeat x 0)
               = length ([] : list α)         : rfl
           ... = 0                            : rfl
| (n+1) := by calc length (repeat x (n + 1))
                   = length (x :: repeat x n) : rfl
               ... = length (repeat x n) + 1  : rfl
               ... = n + 1                    : by rw length_repeat_1
 
-- 11ª demostración
lemma length_repeat_2 :
   n, length (repeat x n) = n
| 0     := by simp
| (n+1) := by simp [*]

Se puede interactuar con la prueba anterior en esta sesión con Lean.

En los comentarios se pueden escribir otras soluciones, escribiendo el código entre una línea con <pre lang="lean"> y otra con </pre>

Soluciones con Isabelle/HOL
theory "Pruebas_de_length_(repeat_x_n)_Ig_n"
imports Main
begin
 
(* 1ª demostración⁾*)
lemma "length (replicate n x) = n"
proof (induct n)
  have "length (replicate 0 x) = length ([] :: 'a list)"
    by (simp only: replicate.simps(1))
  also have "… = 0"
    by (rule list.size(3))
  finally show "length (replicate 0 x) = 0"
    by this
next
  fix n
  assume HI : "length (replicate n x) = n"
  have "length (replicate (Suc n) x) =
        length (x # replicate n x)"
    by (simp only: replicate.simps(2))
  also have "… = length (replicate n x) + 1"
    by (simp only: list.size(4))
  also have "… = Suc n"
    by (simp only: HI)
  finally show "length (replicate (Suc n) x) = Suc n"
    by this
qed
 
(* 2ª demostración⁾*)
lemma "length (replicate n x) = n"
proof (induct n)
  show "length (replicate 0 x) = 0"
    by simp
next
  fix n
  assume "length (replicate n x) = n"
  then show "length (replicate (Suc n) x) = Suc n"
    by simp
qed
 
(* 3ª demostración⁾*)
lemma "length (replicate n x) = n"
proof (induct n)
  case 0
  then show ?case by simp
next
  case (Suc n)
  then show ?case by simp
qed
 
(* 4ª demostración⁾*)
lemma "length (replicate n x) = n"
  by (rule length_replicate)
 
end

En los comentarios se pueden escribir otras soluciones, escribiendo el código entre una línea con <pre lang="isar"> y otra con </pre>

Límite de sucesiones no decrecientes

En Lean, una sucesión u₀, u₁, u₂, … se puede representar mediante una función (u : ℕ → ℝ) de forma que u(n) es uₙ.

En Lean, se define que a es el límite de la sucesión u, por

   def limite (u: ℕ → ℝ) (a: ℝ) :=
     ∀ ε > 0, ∃ N, ∀ n ≥ N, |u n - a| < ε
<pre lang="text">
donde se usa la notación |x| para el valor absoluto de x
<pre lang="text">
   notation `|`x`|` := abs x

y que la sucesión u es no decreciente por

   def no_decreciente (u : ℕ → ℝ) :=
     ∀ n m, n ≤ m → u n ≤ u m

Demostrar que si u es una sucesión no decreciente y su límite es a, entonces u(n) ≤ a para todo n.

Para ello, completar la siguiente teoría de Lean:

import data.real.basic
import tactic
 
variable {u :   }
variable (a : )
 
notation `|`x`|` := abs x
 
def limite (u :   ) (a : ) :=
   ε > 0,  m,  n  m, |u n - a| < ε
 
def no_decreciente (u :   ) :=
   n m, n  m  u n  u m
 
example
  (h : limite u a)
  (h' : no_decreciente u)
  :  n, u n  a :=
sorry
Soluciones con Lean
import data.real.basic
import tactic
 
variable {u :   }
variable (a : )
 
notation `|`x`|` := abs x
 
def limite (u :   ) (a : ) :=
   ε > 0,  m,  n  m, |u n - a| < ε
 
def no_decreciente (u :   ) :=
   n m, n  m  u n  u m
 
-- 1ª demostración
example
  (h : limite u a)
  (h' : no_decreciente u)
  :  n, u n  a :=
begin
  intro n,
  by_contradiction H,
  push_neg at H,
  replace H : u n - a > 0 := sub_pos.mpr H,
  cases h (u n - a) H with m hm,
  let k := max n m,
  specialize hm k (le_max_right _ _),
  specialize h' n k (le_max_left _ _),
  replace hm : |u k - a| < u k - a, by
    calc |u k - a| < u n - a : hm
               ...  u k - a : sub_le_sub_right h' a,
  rw ← not_le at hm,
  apply hm,
  exact le_abs_self (u k - a),
end
 
-- 2ª demostración
example
  (h : limite u a)
  (h' : no_decreciente u)
  :  n, u n  a :=
begin
  intro n,
  by_contradiction H,
  push_neg at H,
  cases h (u n - a) (by linarith) with m hm,
  specialize hm (max n m) (le_max_right _ _),
  specialize h' n (max n m) (le_max_left _ _),
  rw abs_lt at hm,
  linarith,
end

Se puede interactuar con la prueba anterior en esta sesión con Lean.

En los comentarios se pueden escribir otras soluciones, escribiendo el código entre una línea con <pre lang="lean"> y otra con </pre>

Soluciones con Isabelle/HOL
theory Limite_de_sucesiones_no_decrecientes
imports Main HOL.Real
begin
 
definition limite :: "(nat ⇒ real) ⇒ real ⇒ bool"
  where "limite u a ⟷ (∀ε>0. ∃N. ∀k≥N. ¦u k - a¦ < ε)"
 
definition no_decreciente :: "(nat ⇒ real) ⇒ bool"
  where "no_decreciente u ⟷ (∀ n m. n ≤ m ⟶ u n ≤ u m)"
 
(* 1ª demostración *)
lemma
  assumes "limite u a"
          "no_decreciente u"
  shows   "∀ n. u n ≤ a"
proof (rule allI)
  fix n
  show "u n ≤ a"
  proof (rule ccontr)
    assume "¬ u n ≤ a"
    then have "a < u n"
      by (rule not_le_imp_less)
    then have H : "u n - a > 0"
      by (simp only: diff_gt_0_iff_gt)
    then obtain m where hm : "∀p≥m. ¦u p - a¦ < u n - a"
      using assms(1) limite_def by blast
    let ?k = "max n m"
    have "n ≤ ?k"
      by (simp only: assms(2) no_decreciente_def)
    then have "u n ≤ u ?k"
      using assms(2) no_decreciente_def by blast
    have "¦u ?k - a¦ < u n - a"
      by (simp only: hm)
    also have "… ≤ u ?k - a"
      using ‹u n ≤ u ?k› by (rule diff_right_mono)
    finally have "¦u ?k - a¦ < u ?k - a"
      by this
    then have "¬ u ?k - a ≤ ¦u ?k - a¦"
      by (simp only: not_le_imp_less)
    moreover have "u ?k - a ≤ ¦u ?k - a¦"
      by (rule abs_ge_self)
    ultimately show False
      by (rule notE)
  qed
qed
 
(* 2ª demostración *)
lemma
  assumes "limite u a"
          "no_decreciente u"
  shows   "∀ n. u n ≤ a"
proof (rule allI)
  fix n
  show "u n ≤ a"
  proof (rule ccontr)
    assume "¬ u n ≤ a"
    then have H : "u n - a > 0"
      by simp
    then obtain m where hm : "∀p≥m. ¦u p - a¦ < u n - a"
      using assms(1) limite_def by blast
    let ?k = "max n m"
    have "¦u ?k - a¦ < u n - a"
      using hm by simp
    moreover have "u n ≤ u ?k"
      using assms(2) no_decreciente_def by simp
    ultimately have "¦u ?k - a¦ < u ?k - a"
      by simp
    then show False
      by simp
  qed
qed
 
(* 3ª demostración *)
lemma
  assumes "limite u a"
          "no_decreciente u"
  shows   "∀ n. u n ≤ a"
proof
  fix n
  show "u n ≤ a"
  proof (rule ccontr)
    assume "¬ u n ≤ a"
    then obtain m where hm : "∀p≥m. ¦u p - a¦ < u n - a"
      using assms(1) limite_def by fastforce
    let ?k = "max n m"
    have "¦u ?k - a¦ < u n - a"
      using hm by simp
    moreover have "u n ≤ u ?k"
      using assms(2) no_decreciente_def by simp
    ultimately show False
      by simp
  qed
qed
 
end

En los comentarios se pueden escribir otras soluciones, escribiendo el código entre una línea con <pre lang="isar"> y otra con </pre>